NOAH KANTROWITZ

Ops Glossary: Containers 2014-08-20

Server operations involves a lot of jargon, and there is a lot of variance between organizations. I won’t claim these terms are universal, but I’ve found them fairly general and enough to get your meaning across between sub-dialects. Some tools span multiple classifications, and some focus on only one.

Artifact

In general an artifact is the result of some kind of build process. In context, it usually refers to some kind of disk image that will be used to spawn either a service or a virtual machine. As the word is somewhat long, I sometimes use the term “slug” to refer to the same thing.

Examples:

Amazon AMI Docker image
Omnibus package Java JAR
Python Wheel Tarball

Artifact Builder

The artifact builder (or slug builder) is the tool or service that creates an artifact. This sometimes just means assembling files in to a disk image, or downloading and compiling software. In either case, it may include other artifacts.

Examples:
Packer docker build
Omnibus Nix
Heroku buildpacks Maven

Artifact Storage

Once you have a built artifact, you need to store it somewhere. The simplest form is a single web server and local files, but something with an API allows much more flexibility with access. In some cases this involves repository formats like apt and yum.

Examples:
Nexus Artifactory
S3 (AMIs or apt/yum) DevPI
Docker Registry Glance

Container

This one will probably be a little more controversial. I consider a container system to be anything capable of running an artifact. This includes things commonly thought of as “heavier” virtual machines, as well as simply running a process. Most container systems are only compatible with a few types of artifacts so they are generally chosen together, Amazon EC2 can only run AMIs while a .deb package can be run either directly or inside Docker, et al.

Examples
Xen KVM
Docker Mesos
exec() Tomcat

Isolation

Security isolation between containers helps to allow multi-tenancy and improve security in single-tenant systems. Isolation systems limit the operations a running container can take and how they can affect the outside world.

Examples
Xen KVM
LXC Libcontainer
Chroot ZeroVM
Zone Jail

Service Management

Service management starts containers and keeps them running. In some cases, like AWS EC2, this is just built-in to the platform. Other container systems require an external tool. Service management tools also often hook in to log management, monitoring, and alerting.

Examples
Systemd AWS Auto-Scaling Group
Supervisord Runit
Aurora Fleet

Virtualization

This term is now uselessly vague. In days past it referred to systems that used explicit virtual hardware, but this is almost never done anymore. It can now rest in peace next to “cloud” and “web 2.0”.


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